“IBM took the brain’s ability of parallel processing and applied it a computer chip. By packing together a network of “neuralsynaptic cores,” which echoes the functions of neurons, it is able to process different signals at once. According to MIT Technology Review, the chip analyzes information at the place it is received, instead of shunting it to a different circuit or part of the machine. That not only improves the speed and performance, but also reduces the power needed.”
(Your Next Computer Will Be Able…-2machines.com)
(Your Next Computer Will Be Able…-2machines.com)
The day chess champion Garry Kasparov was defeated by Deep Blue supercomputer in 1997, I, like many others, was rather shocked at the ability of Deep Blue, and had mixed feelings. First, at the very awesome capability of mankind to create such a monster of a machine, which can grind 200M choices in 1 second. On the other hand, I still thought there were many activities and areas, in thinking, computing, analyzing only— not to mention feelings and other modes of thinking-feeling-judging in the human brain and psyche-psychology— computers will have a very , very long, long way to be able to copy, learn, and act (with great rigidity and awkwardness), the way humans do. In short, it is very much a machine, which needs many instructions from the human boss to do certain things more intelligently. Today, I read this comment by the world-renowned physicist Stephen Hawking and stop some activities to ponder upon it for a while again. Mr. Hawking repeats what he said in December 2014 , in which he is awed at the pace of progress by computers, and warns again about the need to keep its progress and the ability to “take off on its own, and re-design itself at an ever increasing rate," in check.
In a sense and a probability, this should alert all of us about the days when computer surpass human in many “computations” with the speed and computational power, and even in making some choices/decisions for us. I still remember I was curious how Deep Blue— besides processing that immensely huge processes in a tick of time— was able to make choices (maybe around 10-20 moves after Kasparov's turn) and evaluate them to defeat Kasparov.
Prof. Hawking did not give any argument to support his warning, and did not elaborate on how a computer, even a super computer can “redesign” itself ? How is this possible without the minds and commands of the humans ?
So I read on, and quickly go over “Turing test”, and recent reports on how computers can learn from past “lessons”. I try the lessons which Cleverbot (from Rollo Carpenter) learns to see how it works and what it can accomplish . Not much. The cleverness in that program, acting like a talking robot or human, is very restricted. I venture to say that of a ten years old kid. Some answers and questions just jumped out the sky, or made no sense in responding to the relevant questions, or answers. Try it yourselves at cleverbot.com
But people should always pay great attention to the ability to evaluate and make choices like that of Deep Blue, especially in choices and decisions which can affect human lives, their safeties and values. The more you can code into the realm of understanding of computers, write their algorithm, corelets the more they will learn. And with the speed they can perform, many consequences can get out of hands in 100 years, the estimated time frame given by Hawking.
(*) To this day in 2015, the word “Artificial” in AI, should be in “double quotes”. It has developed far, 18 years after Kasparov’s defeat. Please remember, Mr. Kasparov’s brain can only process 3 choices/calculations in 1 sec, but Deep Blue lost to him in the first match in 1996, only won in 1997 with 3.5 vs 2.5 points, with Kasparov at advantages at 2/1 in the three draw games. The genius in chess game of Kasparov is almost invincible in many years. Therefore, with that ability to “evaluate” choices, maybe we need to “confirm” that computer's "intelligence", in a limited sense, has jumped past that “artificial” stage already. But also note, if you observe closely, you can still feel many of the “activities” or, speech the computer can do are stuffs that can be pre-programmed. But then we need to delimit or try to define better the term “Artificial Intelligence”, because, according to the IBM team who created Deep Blue, the super computer should not be defined as artificial intelligence. And right now, IBM is doing research and development on brain-like computers with newer concepts in writing programs.
“Deep Blue is stunningly effective at solving chess problems, but it is less "intelligent" than the stupidest person. It doesn't think, it reacts”
“The worlds of science and enterprise are full of problems with so many variables they can't be solved in real time. A system like Deep Blue that can accelerate solutions by powers of 10 is going to make a difference far beyond the chessboard.”
“Cognitive computing is expected to play a key role in this age of “Big Data,” where the volume and speed of accumulated data — and the complexity of the data itself, in the form of images, video, symbols and natural language — is rapidly accelerating. Machines that use the brain as their model will have a particular edge when confronting that mountain of data, as they’re process more information simultaneously, at faster rates, with an ability to “learn from” it at the same time.”